1. What is the application of
      a) structural Proteomics,
      b) Functional Proteomics?
    2. What is a Recombinant DNA?
    3. Why don’t the restriction enzymes destroy the DNA of the organism in which they are produced?
    4. What function the enzymes DNA ligase perform?
    5. What are the essential features of a vector?
    6. What are ‘immunotoxins’?
    7. What is the use of ‘drug designing’?
    8. What is the advantage of using an ‘immobilized enzyme’ over a ‘free enzyme’?
    9. Discuss the use of molecular probes and antibodies in forensic science for identification of criminals.
    10. What are YACs and contigs? How do they help in making the molecular maps for animal genomes?
    11. What are monoclonal antibodies? What is the method to prepare monoclonal antibodies?
    12. What is ‘hybridoma technology”?
    13. What do you mean by the term “tissue engineering”?
    14. What is vector less gene transfer? What are the methods used to transfer genes directly in plants?
    15. How are virus- free plants obtained?
    16. What do you mean by term “embryo rescue”?
    17. Name two conditions necessary for maintaining animal cells in culture which are different from plant cell culture.
    18. What is the composition of nutrient media used for plant culture?
    19. What are cell lines? How are the growth characteristics of cell lines determined?
    20. What is the importance of karyotyping in established cell lines?
    21. What is the difference between primary cell lines and secondary cell lines?
    22. Explain how embryo rescue can be used to produce novel hybrids?
    23. Explain why Agrobacterium tumefaciens is known as “natural genetic engineer of plants”?
    24. What is the common strategy to produce transgenic crops with delayed ripening and longer shelf life of fruits?
    25. Why was it necessary to create a bioinformatics database?
    26. Name some of the database retrieval tools. What is their purpose?
    27. What is the BLAST family of search tools?
    28. Based on genomic studies, why do people say that different species and organism had a common ancestor 100 million years ago?
    29. What are the two techniques which help us to understand the gene expressed in a cell or tissue under different environmental conditions?
    30. What is the mode of action of tPA? How is it produced by animal cell culture technology?

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