Questions of general biotechnology

Q1What is biotechnology? What are the achievements of biotechnology?

Q2 Write a short note on the global impact of biotechnology.

Q3 Write a short note on History of biotechnology highlighting the contributions of various scientists.

Q4 What is the difference between the traditional biotechnology and modern biotechnology?

Q5 Write the full forms of the following terms: NBTB, DBT, OECD ICGEB.


Questions on basic concepts

Q1What is PCR technology? What are its applications?

Q2 What is restriction and modification system?

Q3 Give a detailed account of Restriction endonucleases.

Q4 What are plasmids? How do they work as cloning vector?

Q5 What is a cloning vector? Why are they necessary?

Q6 Write short notes on: a) YAC vectors, b) pBR322, c) BAC vector, d) Cosmid vectors.

Q7What is site directed mutagenesis?

Q8 What is genomics? Give a brief account of genome sequencing project.

Q9 What is the ‘microarray technique’ used to differentiate a normal cell from a diseased cell?

Q10 What do you mean by ‘complete genome sequencing’? Name any two organisms whose genome has been sequenced completely.

Q11 What is the advantage of using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) in such sequencing programe?

Q12 Write the procedure of gene cloning.

Q13 What is gene prediction and gene counting?

Q14 Write a short note on ‘proteomics’.

Q15 Write short notes on: SNPs, Functional genomics, Comparative genomics, Expression tag sequence, DNA microarray technology.

Q16 Define the following: Plasmid, Restriction site, transformation, mutation, transfection.

Q17 What are restriction enzymes? Why are they so important in rDNA technology?

Q18 Enlist the various steps involved in rDNA experiment.

Q19 What are the essential features of a vector?

Q20 What does PCR stand for? What are the different steps involved in a PCR reaction?

Q21 What is ‘Insertional Inactivation’?

Q22 What are the disadvantages of using E. coli for production of eukaryotic proteins?

Q23 Differntiate between : a) Blunt ends and sticky ends, b) YAC and BAC, c) Genomic library and cDNA library, d) Microinjection and electroporation.

Q24 Write a short note on RFLP and indicate one of its important applications.

Q25 What is site-directed mutagenesis? What are it’s applications?

Q26 What are the consequences of incorrect folding of a protein?

Q27 Name two human diseases caused by the absence of a protein.

Q28 What is ‘Proteomics’? What are it’s applications?

Q29 Differentiate between protein engineering and genetic engineering.


Questions on Biotechnology and medicine

Q1 What are monoclonal antibodies? How are they formed?

Q2 What is antenatal diagnosis? What ate it’s applications?

Q3 Write short notes on the following: Gene therapy, genetic counseling, Genetic diseases, Genetic databank, Super bug.


Questions on Animal biotechnology

Q1What are the requirements for animal cell and tissue culture?

Q2 Write in details a note on animal cell culture medium, it’s different ingredients and methods of sterilization.

Q3 Discuss in detail different methods of disaggregation of animal tissue.

Q4 What are the advantages and disadvantages of adding serum in the animal culture medium?

Q5 What is the difference between cold trypsinization and warn trypsinization?

Q6 What is immobilized cell culture?

Q7 Write short notes on : Organ culture, Hybridoma technology, tPA, EPO, Somatic cell fusion, MoAB.
Q8 Name two important products from animal cell culture technology. What are their functions?

Q9 Write two important features of animal cell culture. Differentiate between primary and secondary cell cultures.

Q10 What are cell lines? How are the growth characteristics of cell lines determined?

Q11 What is the importance of ph While culturing animal cells? How is the pH maintained in culture media?

Q12 What are some of the characteristics features of normal and transformed cells?

Q13 Discuss the role of serum in culturing animal cells.

Q14 Differentiate between roller bottles and spinner bottles.

Q15 How many haemopoietic cells are supposedly present in mouse? Also indicate how many RBCs, platelets, and B –cells are produced per kilogram body weight?

Q16 How is erythropoietin produced by animal cell culture?

Q17 What is the mode of action of tPA? How is it produced by animal cell culture technology?

Q18 What are the applications of embryonic cell technology?

Q19 Differentiate between monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antibodies? Write the applications of monoclonal antibodies.

Q20 What are the public concerns regarding the use of genetically engineered products.

Q21 Briefly describe the equipments required for animal cell culture.

Q22 Differentiate between finite cell lines and continuous cell lines.

Q23 Write a brief note on bioethics in animal genetic engineering.


Questions on Biotechnology and Agriculture

Q1 What is artificial insemination? Write in detail about semen storage and sperm sexing in animals.

Q2 What is ‘multiple ovulation’? In what ways it can be induced, and embryo transferred in animals?

Q3 What do you mean by embryo splitting and implantation in animals?

Q4 What is embryo cloning?

Q5 What is nuclear transplantation in animals?

Q6 Write a note on cloning of embryonic stem cells.

Q7 What are transgenic animals? Write in brief about transgenic mammals, sheep, and fish.

Q8 What is molecular farming?

Q9 What is the role of molecular markers in livestock improvement?

Q10 Write a short note on ‘Dolly’.

Q11 Write a note on ‘transgenic breeding strategies and molecular markers’.

Q12 What is a chimeric mouse?

Q13 Write a brief note on bioethics in plant genetic engineering.

Q14 What are the genetic engineering strategies to create the following traits in transgenic crops: a) Herbicide tolerance, b) Abiotic stress, c) insect resistance, d) Virus resistance.

Q15 What is the common strategy to produce transgenic crops with delayed ripening and longer shelf life of fruits.

Q16 What is ‘Golden Rice’? In what why it is different from the normal rice?

Q17 Write briefly about the benefits of biodegradable plastics that are produced from GM plants.

Q18 What are the advantages of using molecular markers in plant breeding selections over morphological and biochemical markers?

Q19 How can genetically engineered microbes be used for increasing crop productivity and crop protection?

Q20 What biotechnological strategies have helped us to obtain transgenic plants?

Q21 How can transgenic plants be used in the detection and study of DNA sequences regulating gene expression?

Q22Describe the various techniques utilized for introducing foreign DNA into plant cells.

Q23 What is direct gene transfer?

Q24 Define the following: virus mediated gene transfer, microinjection, liposomes, electroporation, particle gun method, agroinfection


Questions on Plant biotechnology

Q1Write brief history of development of in vitro techniques of plant cell culture.

Q2 What are the requirements for establishing a tissue culture laboratory?

Q3 Write a short note on the composition and preparation of culture medium for plant tissue culture medium.

Q4 What is an explant? How will you induce callus from it?

Q5 What is ‘organogenesis’? What are it’s applications?

Q6 What are the applications and uses of root culture?

Q7 Describe the process of preparing cell suspension. What are the benefits of using aqueous medium over solid medium.

Q8 What is micropropagation? How is it different from vegetative propagation?

Q9 Write the procedure of isolation of protoplasts from the plant cells. What are the applications of protoplast culture?

Q10 Write a short note on pollen and anther culture.

Q11 Why does a cultured anther permit pollens to develop embryos but not the cultured pollen grains?

Q12 What is in vitro androgenesis?

Q13 What is embryo culture and embryo rescue?

Q14 What are somalclonal variations? What is it’s significance in plant tissue culture?

Q15 Describe how the technique of micropropagation has been applied in the area of horticulture and forestry?

Q16 What are secondary metabolites? How plant tissue culture has helped to obtain secondary metabolites?

Q17 What are transgenic plants? Write in detail on selectable markers and their use in production of transgenic plants.

Q18 Write a short note on molecular farming.
Q19 What is ‘biotransformation’?

Q20 What are edible vaccines and edible antibodies?

Q21Discuss the ‘bioethics in plant genetic engineering’.

Q22 What are molecular markers? Discuss in detail different types of molecular markers used in genome mapping.

Q23 What do you know about variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and SSRs? Write differences between them. How SSRs are used in genome mapping?

Q24 What are quantitative trait loci (QTL)? Write their mapping by using molecular markers.

Q25 How can you construct genetic maps of plants and animals using RFLP?

Q26 What are the applications of RFLP and RAPD markers?

Q27 Define the following: RFLP, RAPD, VNTR, YAC, QTL, Chromosome walking, PCR.

Q28 What is meant by plant regeneration? Give different pathways of plant regeneration.

Q29 Name a few useful secondary metabolites that can be produced through plant cell culture technology.

Q30 The ‘Agrobacterium’ is considered as Natural Genetic Engineer of plants. Do you agree?


Questions on Industrial and microbial biotechnology

Q1What is fermentation? Discuss the role of microorganisms in fermentation process with suitable examples.

Q2 What is the significance of microbial cultures?

Q3 Give a detailed account of batch culture and microbial kinetics in batch culture.

Q4 What is down stream processing? What are the various steps involved?

Q5 What is the ‘scale up of microbial process’?

Q6 What is a fermenter? How does it function?

Q7 Discuss in brief the culture selection method of Penicillium.

Q8 Write a short note on ‘Isolation and improvement of microbial strains’.

Q9What is Single Cell Protein (SCP)? How many types of microorganisms are used for the production of single cell protein product.

Q10 Write a brief note on advantages of using single cell protein, and organic waste utilized for production of single cell protein.

Q11 Discuss the nutritional value of single cell protein.

Q12 What are edible mushrooms? What role could they play in facing the challenge of world food shortage? Discuss their nutritional status.

Q13 What is a biocatalyst? What role does it play in biotechnology?

Q14 What is immobilization of enzymes? What are the advantages of using them?

Q15 Describe the role of ‘biosensors’.

Q16 What is bioconversion?

Q17 Differentiate between Stirred tank and airlift bioreactor.

Q18 How is continuous culture better than batch or fed batch cultures?

Q19 Suggest two methods of preserving microbial strains.

Q20 What are the functions of the microbial culture collections?

Q21 What is lyophilization? Why are lyophilized cultures of microbes viable for several years?

Q22 What is meant by ‘steady state’ in relation to the growth of microbial cultures?

Q23 How is the large quantity of air required in industrial fermenters sterilized?

Q24 What is biohydrometallurgy and biomineralization? How can microbes be used for extraction of metals and for inducing mineral deposits?


Questions on Biotechnology and Environment

Q1What is bioremediation? In what ways it is good for environmental clean up?

Q2 What is ‘in situ bioremediation’?

Q3 Write a short note on ‘ex situ bioremediation ‘with special reference to composting.

Q4 How can the bioremediation of xenobiotics be done?

Q5 Define the following: Biosorption, bioaugmentation, biofiltration, bioleaching.
Q6 What do you understand by the terms ‘in situ’ and ‘ex situ’ conservation? Discuss the different approaches used for in situ and ex situ conservation of plant and animal species in different parts of the world.

Q7 Discuss the utility of micropropagation for reforestation of degraded lands. Describe the different steps involved in this technology.

Q8 What is environmental biotechnology? Describe the areas covered under this subject and discuss their significance in the present-day concern about the degradation of environment.

Q9 How can biotechnology be used in controlling pollution through the use of cleaner technology?

Q10 What is the role of biotechnology in the treatment of industrial effeluents?

Q11 How has the field of biotechnology been used for reclamation of toxic sites and for the removal of spilled oil deposits/disasters?

Q12 How are biosensors used for ‘environmental monitoring’ and ‘biomonitoring’?


Questions on Biotechnology and society

Q1 What do you mean by bio safety? Discuss in detail the biosafety guidelines and regulations for release of genetically engineered microorganisms.

Q2 What is Intellectual property right? Discuss in detail the different forms of its protection.

Q3 What do you mean by ‘patenting the biological materials’.

Q4 Write short notes on the following: Patents, copyrights, Trade secrets and trade marks, Plant varitey protection, International status of Patents.

Q5 Write the full forms of the following: GATT, TRIPS, WIPO, GMMS, GMP, GRAS.

Q6 Describe the conditions, which need to be met, before a patent can be issued. How and to what extent, these conditions can be met for patentable living organisms?

Q7 There has been concerns raised on the issue of patenting ‘live forms’. Do you think the developments in biotechnology will make the patenting of live forms unavoidable?

Q8 What are plant breeder’s rights? How do they differ from patents?

Q9 Discuss the international conventions and co-operations in the area of patency and patenting of biological material.

Q10 What is intellectual property right and what rights are available to protect it? How do patents differ from other intellectual property rights (IPRs)?

Q11 What do you mean by process patent and product patent?


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