1. What are the restriction enzymes and why are they so important in rDNA technology?
    2. What is intellectual property and what rights are available to protect it?
    3. What are the advantages of getting a patent?
    4. What are ‘biosensors’? How are biosensors used for environmental monitoring and bio-monitoring?
    5. What is biohydrometallurgy and biomineralization? How can microbes be used for extraction of metals and for inducting mineral deposits?
    6. Describe in detail, the role of biofertilizers and bioinsecticides in protecting the environment?
    7. What is metabolic engineering and how can it be used for overproduction of metabolites in plants?
    8. What do you understand by ‘protein engineering’? What is the difference between ‘protein engineering’ and ‘genetic engineering’?
    9. What are “Transgenic plants”? How do we obtain transgenic plants?
    10. What is ‘molecular farming’? How and which transgenic plants can be used as ‘bioreactors’ for producing important drugs and chemicals?
    11. Write short notes on: a) virus mediated gene transfer, b) microinjection, c) electroporation, d) particle gun method.
    12. What are cybrids? How are they produced? Discuss the use of cybrids in crop improvement programmes.
    13. What is micropropagation? Describe the technique of micropropagation and discuss the different possible uses.
    14. What is somaclonal variation? Discuss the role that they play in crop improvement.
    15. What is gene therapy? What are the limitations and prospects of its use in medicine.
    16. What is the difference between “molecular farming” and “molecular pharming”? What useful products can be obtained by using transgenic animals as “bioreactors”?
    17. What are GM foods? What precautions one should observe regarding the safety of GM foods?
    18. What are the genetic engineering strategies to create (a) edible vaccines, (b) herbicide tolerant plants?
    19. What is explant culture? What are the steps involved in explant culture?
    20. What is direct gene transfer? What are the methods of direct gene transfer?
    21. Write a short note on “bioethics in animal genetic engineering”?
    22. What is meant by plant regeneration? Give the different pathways of plant regeneration.
    23. What is “molecular breeding”? What types of markers are used in screening/selection?
    24. What are the essential features of a vector?
    25. Write a short note on FISH technique? How can FISH technique help in the detection of chromosomal abnormalities?
    26. What is “micro array technology?
    27. Write a short note on ‘genome sequencing project’ and why is it essential for sequencing a genome?
    28. What are the different types of sequences entered into the database?
    29. What are the different methods for small scale sequencing of genome?
    30. How can we use comparative CDNA hybridization micro array method to differentiate between the normal cell and cancerous cells?

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