ABIOTIC STRESS - The stress caused to plants due to herbicides, water deficiency, ozone, intense light etc.

ACTIVE SITE - The site on the enzyme at which the substrate binds.

- The cells which grow adhering to cell culture vessel and are adherent dependent are called adherent cells

AEROBE - A microorganism dependent on oxygen for it’s growth.

AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY - A type of chromatography in which the matrix contains chemical groups that can selectively bind (ligands) to the molecules being purified.

AFFINITY TAG - The tagged amino acid sequence which forms a part of the recombinant protein and acts as an identification tag.

AGAROSE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS - Electrophoresis carried out on agarose gel to separate DNA fragments.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens – A rod shaped bacterium that causes crown gall disease by inserting it’s DNA into plant cells.

AMINO ACIDS - The building blocks or monomeric units of protein.

AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM (AFLP) - A sensitive method for the detection of polymorphism in the genome. It is based on the principle of RFLP and RAPD.

Anaerobe- A microorganism that can grow in the absence of O2

Androgenesis- Development of plants from male gametophytes

Aneuploidy - An abnormal condition of chromosomes, differing from the usual diploid constitution. This may be due to a loss or gain of chromosomes.

Annealing - The pairing of complimentary single strands of DNA to form a double helix.

Anticodon - A set of three nucleotides in tRNA molecule that are complementary to a set of three nucleotides (codon) in mRNA.

Antisense therapy - The in vivo treatment of a genetic disease by blocking translation (protein synthesis) with a DNA or RNA sequence that is complimentary to specific mRNA.

Apoptosis - Programmed cell death

ARS - Autonomously Replicating Sequence

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) - The manipulations of reproduction in animals and humans.

ATCC - American Type Culture Collection

ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate

Autoradiography - The process of detection of radioactively labeled molecules by exposure of an X-ray sensitive film.

Auxins - A group of plant growth regulators which are involved in cell elongation, root initiation etc. e.g. indole acetic acid.

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) - A vector system based on the F-factor plasmid of E.coli , BAC is used for cloning large (100-300 kb) DNA segments.

Bacteriophage - A virus that infects a bacterium, also called as phage.

Baker’s yeast - The living cells of aerobically grown yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used in bread making.

Base pair (bp) - The hydrogen bonded structure formed between two complementary nucleotides (i.e. partnership of A with T or C to G) in DNA structure.
Base ratio - The ratio of A to T, or C to G in a double-stranded DNA.

BATCH CULTURE - Batch culture is a closed culture system containing limited amount of nutrients

BLAST - Basic Local Alignment Search Tool

BAC - Bacterial Artificial Chromosome

Bacillus thuringiensis - A rod shaped bacterium whose toxic crystals act as an insecticide against certain specific species of arthropods.

Bergmann’s plating technique - The most widely used method for culture of isolated single plant cells.

Bioaccumulation - Concentration of a chemical agent (e.g. DDT) in the increasing amount in the organisms of a food chain.

Bioaugmentation - The addition of microorganisms to waste sites so that the hazardous wastes are rendered harmless.

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) - The oxygen required to meet the metabolic needs of aerobic organisms in water containing organic compounds.

Biodegradation - Biological transformation of organic compounds by living organisms, particularly the microorganisms.

Biofertilizer - Commercial preparation of microorganisms by using which the nitrogen nd phosphorus level and growth of plants increase.

Biofilteration - The process of removing complex wastes from domestic and industrial sources by using microorganisms.

Biohazards - The accidents or risks associated with biological materials.

Bioleaching - The use of bacteria to recover, valuable metals from ores.

Biolistics - The process of introducing DNA into plants and animal cells, and organelles by bombardment of DNA-coated pellets under pressure at high speed. This is also called as microprojectile bombardment.

Biomass - The organic mass that can be used as a source of energy. Biomass also refers to the cell mass produced by a population of living organisms.

Biometry - Application of statistical methods to study biological problems.

Biopesticides - The toxic compounds produced by living organisms that can specifically kill a particular pest species.

Bioprocess technology - A more recent usage to replace fermentation technology that involves large scale cultivation of microorganisms for industrial purposes.

Bioreactor - A growth chamber or a vessel for cells or microorganisms. The cells or cell extracts carry out biological reactions in a bioreactor.

Bioremediation - The process of using living organisms to remove contaminants, pollutants, or unwanted substances from soil or water.

Biosensor - An electronic device that uses biological molecules or cells to detect specific compounds.

Biosorption - The process of microbial cell surface adsorption of metals.

Biostimulation - Addition of specific nutrients to enhance the growth of naturally occurring microorganisms that convert toxic compounds to non-toxic compounds.

Biotechnology - The applications of biological principles, organisms and products to practical purposes.

Biotic stress - The stress caused to plants by insects, pathogens (viruses, fungi, bacteria), wounds etc.
- The use of biological systems for the conversion of biomolecules.

Biodiversity - The variability among the living organism from all sources, soil, water, air, extreme habitat or associated with organisms.

BIOTIN - A non-radioactive label used for labeling probes, detected through a cyto-chemical reaction

BIOINFORMATICS - A field of study which involves the use of computer software as well as biology

Blue biotechnology is a term that has been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.

Bioeconomy-The investment and economic output of all of types of applied biotechnologies is termed as Bioeconomy.

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be defined as, "conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale." Bioinformatics plays a key role in various areas, such as Functional genomics (identification of genes and their respective functions), Structural genomics (predictions related to functions of proteins) and Comparative genomics (for understanding the genomes of different species of organisms), and forms a key component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector. The best example is the sequencing of human genome in a record time which was possible because of bioinformatics.

Bt plants - The plants carrying the toxin producing gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, and capable of protecting themselves from insect attack.BLAST- Basic Local Alignment Search Tool

Brewer’s yeast - A strain of yeast usually belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is used for the production of beer.

Broth - Any fluid medium supporting the growth of microorganisms.

Callus - A mass of undifferentiated plant tissues formed from plant cells or tissue cuttings when grown in culture.

Casettee mutagenesis - Replacement of a wild type DNA by a synthetic double-stranded oligonucleotide (a small DNA fragment).

Cell culture - The culture of dispersed (or disaggregated) cells obtained from the original tissue, or from a cell line.

Cell lines - animal or plant cells that can be cultivated under laboratory conditions.

Cell - mediated immune response- The activation of the T-lymphocytes of the immune system in response to a foreign antigen.

CDNA - Complimentary DNA i.e. DNA produced by reverse transcription from mRNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

Chimeric antibodies - Antibodies in which the individual polypeptide chains are composed of segments from two different species (usually man and mouse).

Chimera - A recombinant DNA molecule that contains sequences from different organisms.

Chromatography - An analytical technique dealing with the separation of closely related compounds from a mixture.

Chromosome walking - It is a technique used to identify the overlapping sequences of DNA in a chromosome in order to identify a particular locus of interest.

CLONE - All the individuals derived by asexual reproduction from a single original individual. In molecular biology, a strain of organisms that carries a particular DNA sequence.

Cloning vector - A plasmid or a phage that carries an inserted foreign DNA to be introduced into a host cell.

Codon - A triplet nucleotide sequence of mRNA coding for an amino acid in a polypeptide.

Colony hybridization - A technique that employs nucleic acid probe to identify a bacterial colony with a vector carrying specific gene (s).

CONTIGS - These are continuous (contiguous) sequences which have overlapping regions on either ends

COSMID - A hybrid vector of plasmid and phage DNA, contains specific sequence called as cos sites of phage DNA.

COMPETENCE - Ability of a bacterial cell to take in DNA

CONTINUOUS CELL LINES - The cell lines that get transformed and under in vitro conditions grow continuously are called Continuous cell lines. These cells show no contact inhibition and no anchorage dependence.

Cryopreservation - Storage and preservation at very low temperatures (-1960C).

Cryoprotectant - A chemical agent or a compound that can prevent damage to cells while they are frozen or defrosted.

Culture - A population of plant or animal cells/microorganisms that are grown under controlled conditions.

Culture medium - The nutrients prepared in the form of a fluid (broth) or solid for the growth of cells/tissues in the laboratory.

CYBRIDS - The cytoplasmic hybrids obtained by the fusion of enucleated and nucleated protoplasts are called Cybrids

Cybridization - The process of formation of cybrids.

Cystic fibrosis - A disease affecting lungs and other tissues due to defects in ion transport. It is caused by the deficiency of CFTR gene.

CYTOKINES - Various chemicals produced in the body which mediate immunological responses

Cytotoxicity - The toxic effects on cells that result in metabolic alterations including the death of cells.

Diazotrophs - The microorganisms involved in diazotrophy.

Dolly - The first mammal (sheep) cloned by Wilmut and Campbell in 1997.

DMSO - Dimethyl sulfoxide

DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA fingerprinting - A technique for the identification of individuals based on the small differences in DNA sequences.

DNA hybridization - The pairing of two DNA molecules used to detect the specific sequence in the sample DNA.

DNA marker- A DNA sequence that exists in two or more readily identifiable forms (polymorphic forms) which can be used to mark a mal position on a genome map.

DNA probe - A segment of DNA that is tagged with a label (i.e. isotope) so as to detect a complimentary base sequence in the DNA sample after a hybridization reaction.

DNA profiling - The term used to describe different methods for the analysis of DNA to establish the identity of an individual.

DNA repair - The biochemical processes that correct mutations occurring due to replication errors or as a consequence of mutagenic agents.

DNAse - Deoxyribonuclease

EBI - European Bioinformatics Institute

Electrophoresis - An analytical technique that separates charged molecules in an electrical field.

Electroporation - The technique of introducing DNA into cells by inducing transient pores by electric pulse.

EMBL - European Molecular Biology Laboratory

Edible vaccines - The vaccines produced in plants which can enter the body on eating them.

Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) - The cells of an early embryo that can give rise to all differentiated cells, including germ cells.

Embryo rescue - The culture of immature embryos to rescue them from unripe or hybrid seeds which fail to germinate.

Embryo transfer - The process of implantation of embryos from a donor animal, or developed by in vitro fertilization into the uterus of a recipient animal.

Enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)- A technique for the detection of small quantities of proteins by utilizing antibodies linked to enzymes, which in turn catalyse the formation of coloured products.

Epitopes - The specific antigen determinants located on the antigens.

ENTREZ - This is an integrated data base retrieval system for obtaining comprehensive information on a given biological question

EPO - Erythropoietin

ESI - Electron Spray Ionization

EST - Expressed Sequence Tag

ELISA - Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

Eugenics - The science of improving human stock by selective breeding. It involves giving better chances for more suitable people in the society to reproduce than the less suitable people.

Eutrophicaton - Excess growth of algae (in sewage/waste waters) which leads to oxygen depletion

EXPLANT - The whole plants can be regenerated virtually from any plant referred to as explant.

Exponential phase - This refers to a phase in culture in which the cells divide at a maximum rate.

Expressed sequence tag (EST) - A cDNA that is sequenced in order to gain rapid access to the genes in a genome.

FED-BATCH CULTURE - In a Fed Batch culture, the culture is continuously or sequentially fed with fresh medium with out removing the growing culture

Fermentation - The growth of cells or microorganisms in bioreactors (fermenters) to synthesize special products. Fermentation in biochemistry refers to the biodegradation of carbon compounds by cells or organisms under anaerobic (lack of oxygen) conditions.

Fermenter - A containment system for the cultivation of prokaryotic cells.

Flavr Savr - Transgenic tomato developed by using antisense technology.

Flow cytometry - A method used to sort out cells, organelles or biological materials by passing through apertures of defined sizes.

FISH - Fluorescent in situ Hybridization - - The method of employing fluorescent labels for locating markers on chromosomes by detecting the hybridization positions.

FINITE CELL LINES - Finite cell lines are those which have a limited life span and they grow through a limited number of cell generations

Fusogen - An agent that induces fusion of protoplasts in somatic hybridization.

Fusion protein - A protein that is formed by fusion of two polypeptides, normally coded by separate genes

IEF - Isoelectric Focusing

2-DE- 2 - Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.

Gametoclonal variations - The variations observed in the regenerated plants from gametic cells (e.g. anther culture).

Gene bank - A library of genes or clones of an entire genome of a species.

Gene Cloning - It basically involves the insertion of a gene ( a fragment of DNA) or recombinant DNA into a cloning vector, and propagation of the DNA molecule in a host organism.

GENOMIC DNA -The DNA of an organism containing the essential genes of the organism

GENETIC MAPS - Maps giving relative distance and position of one gene with respect to the other, the distances are based on recombination values

Gene therapy - Treatment of diseases by use of genes or DNA sequences.

Genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) - The microorganisms with genetic modifications are collectively referred to as GEMs.

Genetically modified (GM) foods - The entry of transgenic plants and animals into the food chain represents GM foods.

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - A term used to represent an organisms that are genetically engineered. It usually describes the transgenic plants and transgenic animals.

Genetic engineering - Broadly involves all the in vitro genetic manipulations.

Genome - The total content of DNA represented by the genes contained in a cell.

Genomics- The study of the structure and function of genomes.

Genetic library- A collection of clones representing the entire genome of an organism.

Germ line- Reproductive cells that produce gametes which in turn give rise to sperms and eggs.

GERMPLASM - Germplasm refers to the sum total of all genes preset in a crop and its related species

G.M. or Genetically modified crops etc which have a higher productivity

GRAS - Generally Regarded as Safe,and is in use in some countries to represent the safety (no history of causing illness to humans) of foods, drugs, and other materials. GRAS is also used to represent the host organisms employed in genetic engineering experiments.

GST - Genomic Sequence Tag

Golden rice - The genetically engineered rice with provitamin A ( beta-carotene) enrichment.

Green biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agriculture processes. An example would be the selection and domestication of plants via micropropagation. Another example is the designing of Transgenic plants to grow under specific environments in the presence (or absence) of chemicals. Using geentic engineering, plants have been created that can express a pesiticide, thereby ending the need of external application of pesticides. eg Bt corn. Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this are ultimately more environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate.

HEPA - High Efficiency Particulate Air

Hela cells - A pure cell line of human cancer cells used for the cultivation of viruses.

Heterokaryon - A cell in which two or more nuclei of different genetic make-up are present.

Heterologous - These are gene sequences that are not identical, but show variable degrees of similarity.

HOMOGENATION - Mechanical grinding of cells or tissues

HIGH THROUGH PUT- Fast rate of sequencing

Histotypic cultures - The growth and propagation of cells in three dimensional matrix to high cell density.

HPLC - High Performance/Pressure Liquid Chromatography

Humulin - Human insulin used for the treatment of diabetic patients. It was developed by Eli Liply company and was approved for human use in 1982.

Human Genome project (HGP) - An international mega project for the identification of human genome sequences, the genes and their functions.

HYBRID DNA -DNA composed of sequences from two different organisms, also called as Recombinant DNA.

HYBRIDIZATION - The annealing of a single stranded DNA to its complimentary region on another single stranded DNA

Hybridoma- A clone of hybrid cells produced by fusion of a myeloma cell with an antibody producing cell. Each hybridoma produces only one type of monoclonal antibody.

In SITU HYBRIDISATION - The process of annealing a probe in order in order to screen a DNA library

In vitro - Literally means “in glass” refers to biological activities/reactions carried out in the test tube rather than the living cell or organism.

IN VITRO GENE BANKS - In vitro gene banks have been made to preserve the genetic resources by non-conventional methods, i.e. cell and tissue culture methods

IN VIVO GENE BANK - In vivo gene bank have been made to preserve the genetic resources by conventional methods e.g. seeds, vegetative propagules, etc.

In vivo gene therapy- The direct delivery of gene(s) to a tissue or an organ to alleviate genetic disorders.

Immobilized enzymes - An enzyme physically localized in a defined region enabling it to be reused in a continuous process.

Immunoglobulins- The special group of proteins, commonly referred to as antibodies, produced by B-lymphocytes, and involved in humoral immunity.

Insulin - A hormone synthesized by beta-cells of the pancreas. It facilitates the uptake and metabolism of glucose.

Interferons - A group of glycoproteins that resist viral infection and regulate immune responses.

Interleukins - A group of lymphokines important for the function of immune system.

Junk DNA - The intergenic content of DNA is also referred to as junk DNA.

Karyotyping - The method of photographing the complete set of chromosomes for a particular cell type and organizing them into pairs based on size and shape.

Knock out mouse - A genetically altered mouse lacking the genes for an entire organ or organ system.

LAF - Laminar Air Flow Hood

LABELLING - Attaching radioactive or non radioactive molecules to specific substances in order to detect them

Land farming - A technique for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

Land filling - A method for the final disposal of sludge.

Lipoplexes - The lipid-DNA complexes also referred to as liposomes.

Lytic cycle - The replication cycle of bacteria that ultimately results in the lysis of host cells.

MALDI - matrix Assisted Laser Desorption /Ionization

MARKER GENE - A gene which detect insertion of DNA by its inactivation.

Meristem - A localized region of actively dividing cells in plants i.e. tips of stems and roots.

MICROARRAY - Large number of DNA spots present on a glass slide representative of the total mRNA of a cell, used for detecting expression patterns

MICROPROPAGATION - This method of tissue culture utilizes the culture of apical shoots, auxillary buds, meristems.

Microinjection - The delivery of DNA or other compounds in to eukaryotic cells using fine microscopic needle.

MoAB/MAb - Monoclonal Antibodies A specific and single type of antibody that is produced by hybridoma cells. MAb is directed against a specific antigenic determinant (epitope).

MOLECULAR PHARMING - Use of Transgenic animals to obtain products of medicinal commercial purposes through recombinant DNA technology
MOLECULAR BREEDING - Breeding assisted by molecular (nucleic acid) markers, is known as molecular breeding.

Monellin - A protein found in the fruits of an African plant Discorephyllum cumminsii which isabout 100,000 times sweeter than sucrose.

Morphogenesis - The growth and development of an undifferentiated structure to a differentiated structure or form.

MTCC - Microbial Type Culture Collection

Multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTs)
- In vitro cellular three dimensional proliferating models for the study of tumour cells.

Mushrooms - The fungi belonging to the class basidomycetes, Some of them are edible e.g. Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom)

Mutagenesis - The changes in the nucleotides of DNA of an organism by physical or chemical treatments

Mutagens - The agents that increase the rate of mutation by inducing changes in DNA

Muteins - The second generation recombinant therapeutic proteins are collectively referred to as muteins.

Myeloma - A tumour cell line derived from a lymphocyte which usually produces a single type of immunoglobulin.

Mycelium - A mass of interwoven thread-like filaments of a fungus or bacteria

NBRF - National Biomedical Research Foundation

NCBI - National Centre of Biotechnology Information

NIH - National Institute of Health

Nitrogen fixation - The process of conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Biological nitrogen fixation occurs in prokaryotes and is catalysed by the enzyme nitrogenase.

Northern blotting - The transfer of RNA from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane to perform Northern hybridization

Northern hybridization - The technique used for the detection of specific RNA molecule through Northern blotting

Nucleoid - A term used to represent the DNA containing region of a prokaryotic cell.

Old biotechnology - same as traditional biotechnology

Oligonucleotide - directed mutagenesis- A technique to alter one or more specific nucleotides in a gene (DNA sequence) so that a protein with specific amino acid change is produced

Oncogene - A gene that promotes cell proliferation to result in uncontrolled growth

Oncomouse - The animal model of mouse for cancer which was granted U.S. patent in 1988, the first animal to be patented

Organ Culture - The in vitro culture of an organ so as to achieve the development and/or preservation of the original organ.

Organogenesis - The process of morphogenesis that finally results in the formation of organs e.g. shoots, roots.

Patent - A government issued document that provides the holder the exclusive rights to manufacture, use or sell an invention for a defined period usually 20 years.

Phage - A virus infecting bacterium

Phosphinothricin (glufosinate) - A broad spectrum herbicide

Phytoalexins - The secondary metabolites produced in plants in response to infection

Plantlet - Small rooted shoot or germinated embryo

Plating efficiency - The percentage of cells plated which produce cell colonies.

Plasmid- An autonomous, circular, self replicating extrachromosomal DNA, found in bacteria and some other cells.

PAM - Point Accepted Mutation

pI - Isoelectric point

Poly(A) tail - A series of A- nucleotides attached to the 3’end of eukaryotic mRNA

Polyclonal antibodies - Different antibodies which can react with the same antigen

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) - Intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds. They are biodegradable polymers.

PCR - Polymerase Chain reaction

Polymorphism - The allelic variations in the genomes that results in different phenotypes

PEG - Polyethylene glycol

PGDF - Platelet derived growth Factor

Primer - A short sequence of oligonucleotides that hybridizes with template strand and provides initiation for the nucleic acid synthesis.

Primary Cells - The eukaryotic cells taken directly from an animal for culture purpose.

Primary Cell Culture - The culture produced by the freshly isolated cells or tissues taken from an organism.

Probe - A labeled molecule used in hybridization technique.

Protein Engineering - Generation of proteins with subtly modified structures conferring improved properties e.g. higher catalytic function, thermostability etc.

Protein Targeting - The process of transport of proteins from one compartment to other with in a cell. Also called as protein sorting.

PROTEOME - The complete protein complement of cells, tissues and organisms is referred to as its proteome.

PROTEOMICS - Large scale characterization of the entire protein complement of cells, tissues, and organisms is called proteomics.

PROTEIN ENGINEERING - Production and modification of proteins for medicinal, Industrial, and research purposes

PRIMARY CELL CULTURE - The maintenance of growth of cells dissociated from the parental tissue in culture medium is known as primary cell culture

PITC - Phenyl iso thiocyanate

PTFE - Poly tetra fluoro ethylene

RAPD - Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - A PCR based method of DNA profiling. It basically involves the amplification of DNA sequences using random primers, and use of genetic fingerprints to identify individual organisms (mostly plants)

RFLP - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

RBS - Ribosome Binding site

RT-PCR - Reverse transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

Red Biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotic, and the engineering of genetic cures through Genetic manipulation.

RNA - Ribonucleic acid

RNAse - Ribonuclease

R- HuEPO - Recombinant human erythropoietin

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology - The techniques involved in the construction, and use of recombinant DNA molecules.

Recombinant protein - A protein that is produced by the expression of a cloned gene of a recombinant DNA molecules

Restriction endonuclease - An enzyme that specifically cuts DNA molecule at specific nucleotide sequences.

RFLP - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-A restriction fragment with variable lengths due to the presence of polymorphic restriction sites at one or both ends.

Retro virus - A virus with RNA as genetic material

Reverse transcription - The process of synthesis of DNA from RNA

RNA vaccines - RNA molecules which can synthesize antigenic proteins and offer immunity

Satellite DNA - Repetitive DNA that forms a satellite band in a density gradient

Scale up - The expansion of laboratory experiments to full-sized industrial processes.

Secondary metabolite - A metabolite that is not required for the growth and maintenance of cellular functions.

Septic tanks - Anaerobic digesters of solids of the sewage settled at the bottom of tanks.

Sewage - The liquid waste arising mainly from domestic and industrial sources.

Shot gun approach - A technique for sequencing of genome in which the molecules to be sequenced are randomly broken down into fragments, which are then individually sequenced.

Shuttle vectors - The plasmid vectors that are designed to replicate in two different hosts e.g. E. coli and Streptomyces sp

SNPs - Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

Single cell protein (SCP) - Cells or protein extracts of microorganisms produced in large quanities for use as human or animal protein supplement.

Siderophore - a low molecular weight Fe- chelating protein synthesized by several soil microorganisms.

Signal peptide - A short sequence of amino acids at the N terminal end of some proteins that facilitates the protein to cross membrane

Site-directed mutagenesis - The technique used to produce a specified mutation at a predetermined position in a DNA molecule

Sludge - The semi solid mass produced during the course of sewage/waste water treatment processes.

Somaclonal variation - The genetic variations found in the cultured plant cells when compared to a pure breeding strain.

Somatic cell - Any body cell as opposed to germ cell. Somatic cell is non-reproductive and divides by mitosis.

Somatic cell gene therapy - The delivery of gene(s) to somatic cells to correct genetic defects.

Somatic embryogenesis - Formation of embryos from asexual cells

Southern hybridization - A technique used for the detection of specific DNA sequences (restriction fragments)

Sparger - A device that introduces air into a bioreactor in the form of a fine stream

SDS-PAGE Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate - Polyacrylamide gel Electrophoresis

Stem cells - A progenitor cell that is capable of dividing continuously through out the life of an organism.

Stirred tank fermenter - A fermentation vessel in which the cells or microorganisms are mixed by mechanically driven impellers.

SUB CULTURING - Subculturing involves removing the growth media, washing the plate, disassociating the adherent cells, usually enzymatically/or removing by using pipette, and diluting the cell suspension into fresh media.

SUSPENSION CULTURES - Cells which do not attach to the surface of the culture vessel and grow in a suspended manner in the culture medium are called suspension cultures

Superbug - The first genetically engineered organism (bacterial strain of Pseudomonas) that was patented. It carries different hydrocarbon- degrading genes on plasmids.

Superovulation - The process of inducing g more ovarian follicles to ripen and produce more eggs

T-DNA - The part of the Ti plasmid that is transferred to the plant DNA

t-PA - Tissue Plasminogen Activator

T-lymphocytes (T cells) - The lymphocytes that are dependent on the thymus for their differentiation, and are involved in cell-mediated immune response.

- A protein extracted from berries which is about 3000 times sweeter than sucrose

Tm - Melting temperature

Ti plasmid - The large-sized tumour inducing plasmid found in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It directs crown gall formation in certain plant species.

TIGR - The Institute of Genomic Research

Tissue culture - A process where individual cells, or tissues of plants or animals are grown artificially.

Tissue engineering - The application of the principles of engineering to cell culture for the construction of functional anatomical units.

TRANSFORMATION - Uptake of naked DNA by bacterial cells

Totipotent - A term used to describe a cell that is not committed to a single developmental pathway, and thus it is capable of forming all types of differential cells.

Traditional (old) biotechnology - The age old practices for the preparation of foods and beverages, based on the natural capabilities of microorganisms.

Transgenic - An organism that carries a foreign DNA (transgene).

VECTOR - A vehicle for carrying cloned DNA

Vegetative propagation - The asexual propagation of plants from the detached parts of the plants.

White biotechnology, also known as industrial biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. Another example is the using of Enzymes as industrial Catalyst to either produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous/polluting chemicals. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods.

YAC - Yeast artificial Chromosome

Zygote- The fertilized egg formed by the fusion of two gametes.

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