The term “Genome” was coined by H. Winkler (1920) to describe ‘the complete set of chromosomal and extrachrmosomal genes of
Definition- Genomics is the scientific discipline of mapping, sequencing, and analyzing genomes. This is the field in which basically one uses the genomic information in light of the new experimental data obtained, to answer the related biological, medical, or industrial questions and challenges faced by the human population. Genome is the complete set of chromosomal genes of an organism, a cell, an organelle or a virus.

The term was coined by Thomas Roderick in 1986.

There are different branches of this field now. Genomics can now be broadly divided into-

a) Structural Genomics
Definition - Structural genomics involves the construction of high- resolution genetic, physical, or transcript maps of the organism usually during the initial phase of genome analysis which results in the ultimate physical map of an organism with its complete genome sequencing. In recent years, due to the completion of the various genome-sequencing projects, the term structural genomics now also includes the high-throughput determination of three-dimensional structures of all proteins. Hence the structural genomics, establishes the relationship between the sequence and structure of a genome.

b) Functional Genomics
Functional Genomics deals with the reconstruction of the genome to determine the biological function of genes and gene interactions. The information provided by the structural genomics is used to design experiments to identify the function of the genes. The investigations range from studying the single genes or proteins to studying all genes or proteins at once in a systematic manner which also involves large scale experimental methodology with statistical and computational analysis of the results. Hence the functional genomics helps to co-relate the structure and sequence of the genome to its function.

Genome Resource Bank

Genome Resource Bank (GRB) is a frozen repository of biological materials, including sperm and embryos, tissue, blood products and DNA. It is a modern version of Noah’s arc where all biological material is being preserved for posterity. It is going to being used as a conservation tool for protecting and preserving biodiversity. Efforts are on to develop new cryopreservation technologies that would be valuable to preserve endangered species in biology (for fish to elephants) and can be used in breeding and genetic management whenever need arises.

Genome Resource bank is very important as it serves as an insurance of keeping the biological material safe. It increases the efficiency of captive breeding and at the same time minimizing the number of animals maintained in captivity. It serve as a convenient source for blood, tissue and DNA for analyzing genetic diversity, paternity and disease exposure, etc.

Copyright © 2017 Biotechnology| SEO Optimization by Concern Infotech