It has been found out by using the sequencing technique that although the higher mammals are more complex, the number of genes do not increase likewise. The human beings (-30,000 genes) have only 1/3 rd more genes then the worms (-18,000). This phenomenon is still a paradox to scientists and is called C-value paradox. The C-value paradox indicates that despite the increasing complexity in higher mammals the numbers of genes do not increase likewise.
In human genome only less than 5% of the total sequence, codes, rest are either regulatory in nature such as the splice sites, intron and enhancers or they are simply called Junk DNA.


Table showing the genome size and gene predictions between several different organisms

Genome size in base pairs Organism No. of chromosomes The number of predicted genes Part of the genome that
encodes for protein
500,000 Bacteria, E.Coli 1 5000 90%
14,000,000 Yeast, S. cerevisiae 12 6000 70%
100,000,000 Worm, C. elegans 6 18,000 27%
300,000,000 Fruit Fly, D. melanogaster 4 14,000 20%
125,000,000 Weed, A. thaliana 5 25,500 20%
3,000,000,000 Human, H.sapiens 23 30,000 <5%

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